Programme

 AHRI 2018

Final Conference Programme

Thursday, 6 September 2018
12.00 – 13.00 Works in Progress Lunch

Old College, Elder & Lee Rooms

Registration materials will be available to Works in Progress participants.

 
13.00 – 14.45 Works in Progress: Revisiting Traditional Human Rights

Old College, Elder & Lee Rooms

Chair, Andrea Birdsall, University of Edinburgh

Sahar Ahmed, Trinity College Dublin

Persecution in perpetuity: reforming the definitional lacunae in international refugee law

Shahnawaz Gull, University of Kashmir

Northern Ireland peace process a human rights exemplar for Kashmir Conflict

Joe Mlenga, The Polytechnic University of Malawi

How the Universal Declaration of Human Rights inspired a legal lacuna to disadvantage refugees and host nations

Sarah Balto, University College Dublin

The suitability of the UDHR for the Islamic culture

14.45 – 15.15 Coffee
15.15 – 17.00 Works in Progress: New Visions of Rights

Old College, Elder & Lee Rooms

Chair, Kirsteen Shields, University of Edinburgh

Lene Guercke, KU Leuven

Organized criminal groups as violators of human rights: are victims protected by international law?

José Henriquez, NUI Galway

“It’s easier to kill terrorists”: gang othering, state repression and human rights in Central America

Elif Durmus, Utrecht University

The international legal human rights obligations of cities – A theoretically unexplored relationship

Fin-Jasper Langmack & Jamal El-Zein, Institute for International Peace and Security Law University of Cologne

Conceptualizing guarantees of non-repetition: chances and risks for human rights jurisprudence

16.00 – 18.00 AHRI Executive Committee Meeting

Old College, Raeburn Room

17.00 – 18.00 PA-X Database Launch (Parallel Event)

Old College, Playfair Library

18.00 – 20.00 Opening Reception

Old College, Playfair Library

Friday, 7 September 2018
8.00 – 9.00 Registration

Old College, Playfair Library entrance hall

Coffee will be served from 8.00 in the Playfair Library

 
9.00 – 9.15 Welcome and Opening Remarks

Old College, Playfair Library

Christine Bell, Assistant Principle of Global Justice, University of Edinburgh

Martin Hogg, Head of Edinburgh Law School

Kasey McCall-Smith, AHRI Executive Chair

9.15 – 10.45 Opening Plenary Panel:

Challenges to Human Rights in Times of Transition

Old College, Playfair Library

Chair, Christine Bell, University of Edinburgh

Professor Francesca Klug, OBE, Visiting Professor, London School of Economics, Doughty Street Chambers
Jacquelyn MacLennan, Partner and Pro Bono Practice Leader, White & Case
Professor Michael O’Flaherty, Director, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights
10.45 – 11.15 Coffee

Served in the Playfair only (with carry-cups available)

 
11.15 – 12.30 Panel Sessions A
A1: The UDHR Yesterday and Today

Old College, Raeburn Room

Chair, Jan Wouters, KU Leuven

Barbara Oomen & Alexandra Timmer, Utrecht University

Four or fewer freedoms: contested conceptions of justice in Europe between 1941 and 1957

Yota Negishi, Seinan Gakuin University.

The forgotten principle of Fraternité: re-interpreting the last three articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Felipe Gómez Isa, Duesto University

Articles 28 and 29 of the UDHR inequalities, duties and the structural approach to human rights

A2: Interpretations of a Dignified Life

Old College, Elder Room

Chair, Sylvie de Lomba, University of Strathclyde

Gonzalo Arruego, University of Zaragoza

A case of unsurmountable rigidity? On the relationship between the fundamental right to life and assisted death

Alejandro Fuentes, Raoul Wallenberg Institute & Marina Vannelli, University of Lund

Expanding the protection of children’s rights toward a dignified life. The emerging jurisprudential developments in the Americas

Lorenza Violini, University of Milan & Maria Elena Gennusa, University of Pavia

The universal declaration and its offspring: Human rights courts and the development of the right to a “Dignified Life”

 
A3: The Concept of Human Rights in Flux

Old College, Playfair Library

Chair, Stéphanie Lagoutte, Danish Institute for Human Rights

Jens T Theilen, Kiel University

Beyond debates on human rights inflation:  questioning the conceptual and institutional framework underlying claims to new human rights

Janneke Gerards, Utrecht University

Toward a fluid conception of human rights?

Stefan Martin, Kiel University

Robotic rights. A test case for human rights’ boundaries

A4: New Non-State Actors

50 George Square, Room G.04

Chair, Antoine Buyse, Utrecht University

Shea Esterling, University of Canterbury (NZ)

Legitimacy, participation and indigenous peoples: taonga tuturu cultural heritage and international law-making

Julie Fraser, Utrecht University

In search of better narratives: the role of cultural non-state actors in promoting human rights protection

Linda Hamid, Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies

Non-state actors that aspire to be states: white spots on the international human rights protection map?

A5: Transitions to Peace in Colombia

50 George Square, Room G.05

Chair, Elizabeth Salmón, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú

Manuel E Salamanca, Javierna University

Implementation of a peace agreement and liberal peace in Colombia: human rights institutionalism and practice of protection of human rights in a post-accord scenario

Olivia Herman, KU Leuven

Engaging armed groups as responsible actors in transitional justice processes: lessons from reparative justice in Colombia

Thomas Bundschuh, Sheffield Hallam University

The Colombia redemption – How corporations can become agents of justice and peace: insights from South Africa’s truth commission (TRC) for Colombia’s truth commission (CEV)

12.30 – 13.30 Lunch, 50 George Square, G.06
 

 

 

 

 

13.30 – 15.15 Panel Sessions B
B1: International Protection Mechanisms and National Human Rights Systems: Mutual Influences and Institutional Implications

Old College, Playfair Library

Chair, Tom Pegram, University College London

Stéphanie Lagoutte, Danish Institute for Human Rights

Revisiting interactions between state actors of the national human rights systems and the international

Kirsten Roberts Lyer, Central European University

The role of parliaments in engaging with international human rights actors

Sébastien Lorion, Danish Institute for Human Rights

How to build a national human rights system? Model crystallisation under the influence of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

Domenico Zipoli, Norwegian Centre for Human Rights

Assessing the influence of NHRIs post-treaty body review 2020

B2: The Many Moving Parts in Agreeing Peace

Old College, Raeburn Room

Chair, Elena Katselli, Newcastle University

Farnush Ghadery, KLC

“Sticking to their guns” – The international community’s failure to see the potential of Islamic feminism in the promotion of women’s right in post-conflict Muslim states

Kathryn Nash, University of Edinburgh

Comparative regional approaches to interstate agreements to resolve intrastate conflict

Colin Harvey, Queen’s University Belfast & Anne Smith, Ulster University

Bills of rights, peace agreements and peace processes: Northern Ireland experience

Elizabeth Craig, University of Sussex

The role of minority rights in post-conflict societies: lessons from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo and Macedonia

B3:  The Judiciary and Human Rights Development

Old College, Elder Room

Chair, Tobias Lock, University of Edinburgh

Hubert Smekal & Katarine Sipulova, Czech Centre for Human Rights and Democratization; Masaryk University

Beyond compliance – Domestic judicial implementation of the international human rights case law

Kristin Henrard, Erasmus School of Law Rotterdam

Integration Reasoning at the ECtHR: Challenging the Boundaries of Citizenship

Lize Glas, Radboud University

Pilot judgements as a means to collectively enforce the ECHR and thus the UDHR: what happens with such judgements before the Committee of Ministers?

 

 

B4: Human Rights and the Environment

50 George Square, Room G.04

Chair, James Harrison, University of Edinburgh

Elina Pirjatanniemi, Åbo Akademi University

Should future generations have standing? An analysis of the potential of human rights to protect the rights of future generations

Raffaella D’Antonio, Newcastle University

Human rights and the environment. The right to a healthy environment as emerging norm of international law

Annalisa Savaresi, Stirling University &

Jacques Hartmann, University of Dundee

Human rights responsibility for the impacts of climate change: where are we?

Daphina Misiedjan, Utrecht University

Birthing new human rights: how facing environmental issues are expanding human rights

B5: The Variable Dimensions of Protecting Minority Rights

50 George Square, Room G.03

Chair, Felipe Gómez Isa, Duesto University

David Keane, Middlesex University

ICERD and the source of the ‘Living Instrument’ doctrine in international human rights law

Janos Fiala-Butora, Central European University Budapest

Protecting minority rights or preventing conflicts? – towards an integrated approach

Roberta Medda-Windischer, Eurac Research – Institute for Minority Rights

& Mariuca Oana Constantin, National University of Political and Administrative Studies, Bucharest

Diversity governance and human rights: analysis from the perspective of the cultural defence theory

Damien Short & Corinne Lennox, Human Rights Consortium at the School of Advanced Study, University of London

Raphael Lemkin, genocide and the emergence of minority rights protections

Isilay Taban, University of Sussex

A more inclusive approach: the right to culture for minority refugees

 
B6: Expanding Ideas of Accountability and Redress

50 George Square, Room G.05

Chair, Michelle Burgis-Kasthala, University of Edinburgh

Dug Cubie, University College Cork, & Marlies Hesselman, University of Groningen

Coordination, coherence and accountability, the need for a UN special rapporteur on human rights and disasters

Olga Jurasz, Open University & Shea Esterling, University of Canterbury

Reimagining cultural genocide in international law

Meghan Campbell, University of Birmingham

A new frontier: accountability for grave and systemic abuses of human rights

 

Ebba Lekvall, University of Essex

Reparation in times of transition: challenges to the implementation standards for reparations redressing mass violations of international human rights law

Rebecca Wright, Sheffield Hallam University

Compensation for civilians affected by conflict: an emerging human rights norm?

 
15.15 – 15.45 Coffee, Sponsored by White & Case LLP

Coffee served both in Old College and 50 George Square, G.06

15.45 – 17.30 Panel Sessions C
C1: Reconsidering Human Rights Machinery

Old College, Playfair Library

Chair, Nehal Bhuta, University of Edinburgh

Gjovalin Macaj, University of Oxford

The rise and design of human rights institutions

Aleksandra Koneva, RUDN University

Unification of the human rights treaty bodies: panacea or palliative

Susanne Egan, University College Dublin

Revitalising the UN human rights treaty bodies

Valentina Carraro, Maastricht University

The more the better? The complementarity of human rights mechanisms

C2: Rights of the Displaced

Old College, Raeburn Room

Chair, Tobias Kelly, University of Edinburgh

Elena Katselli, University of Newcastle

The right not to be displaced by armed conflict, to return home and to property restitution: aspirations or legal claims 70 years from the UDHR and 20 years from the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement?

Tanya Herring, Bangor University

The Palermo Protocols as a conduit to legal empowerment and peaceful self-determination

Monika Mayrhofer, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights in Vienna

Protecting human rights of internally displaced persons in Ukraine

Aparna Srivastava, Noida International University

Rights of refugees in India

Cristiano d’Orsi, University of Johannesburg

Article 14 of the UDHR, Africa and the non-application of the verb ‘enjoy’

C3: Democracy

50 George Square, Room G.05

Chair, Mathias Thaler, University of Edinburgh

Hanna Wiczanowska, Adam Mickiewicz University

To which extent shall democracy defend itself in times of transition? Considerations upon Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and European Convention on Human Rights

Laura Henderson, Utrecht University

Democracy and human rights: overturning a state-centric approach to citizenship

Pierre Notermans, University of Liège

Democracy in the case law of the ECtHR in the light of national security tensions between individual and collective rights

Furaha-Joy Sekai Saungweme, Matsikidze and Mucheche Legal Practitioners

Electoral observer missions understood in the context of the UDHR

C4: The CRPD and Disability Justice in Europe

Old College, Elder Room

Discussants, Barbara Oomen, Utrecht University &

Pier Luc Dupont Picard, University of Bristol

Marie Pierre Granger, Central European University

Conceptions  of  ‘Justice’  in  EU  law  with  respect  to  people  living  with  disabilities:  Beyond  ‘justice’  with  a  small  ‘j’

Veronika Apostolovski, ETC Graz

Inclusive education in Austria: one step forward, two steps back?

Laura Brito, CES Coimbra

Human rights and the people living with disabilities in Portugal – Granted or another daily challenge?

Orsolya Salat, Central European University

Recognition, redistribution and representation of persons living with disabilities in Hungary

C5: Civil Society and Human Rights

50 George Square, Room G.03

Chair, Hans-Otto Sano, Danish Institute for Human Rights

Antoine Buyse, Utrecht University

Squashing civic space – Anti-NGO laws and human rights

Moritz Baumgärtel, Utrecht University

Civil society as a method: how to study the realization of human rights within the context of city societies

Christy Shucksmith, University of Nottingham

The Red Cross Movement and human rights protection: assessing the utility of humanitarianism for the promotion and protection of human rights

C6: Women’s Rights

50 George Square, Room G.04

Chair, Claire Duncanson, University of Edinburgh

Lynsey Mitchell, Leeds Beckett University

Saving women Abroad – Ignoring women at home: an inconsistent approach to reproductive rights?

Rebecca Smyth, University of Edinburgh

Reconceiving reproductive rights: a feminist approach to international human rights law

 

 

Violeta Canaves, Yale University

A reconstruction of CEDAW’s paths in Argentina: from irrelevance to resistance. Women’s movements, abortion and sub-national political conflict

Ezgi Fulya Akkuş, Ankara University Faculty of Law

Violence against women: comparative constitutional law perspective

Silvia Gagliardi, NUI Galway

Individual rights vs collective rights: friends or foes?

17.40 – 18.30 New Titles in the AHRI Network

50 George Square, Room G.05

Chair, Veronica Ruiz Abou-Nigm, University of Edinburgh

This session will feature brief introductions to recently published books from individuals in the AHRI Network.

18.45 – 23.30 Conference Dinner & Ceilidh

South Hall, Pollock Halls

 
Saturday, 8 September 2018
8.30 – 9.15 Morning coffee

Coffee served both in Old College and 50 George Square, G.06

 
9.15 – 10.30 Panel Sessions D
D1: Armed Conflicts and Human Rights

Old College, Raeburn Room

Chair, Dug Cubie, University College Cork

Tom Hadden, Queens University Belfast, Aurélien Hucq, Queen’s University Belfast, Liv Moe, Kent Law School

Expanding human rights protections within the battle field

Shane Darcy, NUI Galway

Human rights, armed conflict and covert intelligence

Amrei Müller, Queen’s University Belfast

Can non-state armed groups exercise jurisdiction and this acquire human rights obligations?

 
D2: Continuing Consideration of the Prohibition against Torture

Old College, Elder Room

Chair, Elaine Webster, Strathclyde University

Matthew Sands, Sheffield Hallum University

To what extent has the UN Committee against Torture contributed to the development of international human rights law

Sophie Duroy, European University Institute

The prohibition on torture in the aftermath of the ‘global war on terror’: an emerging recognition of the prohibition to act on torture-tainted intelligence?

Chris Einolf, Northern Illinois University

Does torture work? An empirical test using archival data

 

 

D3: Freedom of Conscience after the Universal Declaration

50 George Square, Room G.05

Chair & Discussant, Tobias Kelly, University of Edinburgh

Méadhbh  McIvor, University  of  Groningen

Sexuality makes the headlines, but I couldnt take a job as an estate agent: Conscience and contestation among Londons  conservative evangelicals

John Adenitire, University of Cambridge

Balancing freedom of conscience and the right to non-discrimination: beyond ongoing conflicts

Galina Oustinova-Stepanovic, University of Edinburgh

Atheist freedom of conscience in the late Soviet Russia, and ‘how nobody needs atheism today’

D4: Assessing the Performance of National Human Rights Institutions: Effectiveness, Context and Leadership

Old College, Playfair Library

Chair, Tomer Broude, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Discussant, Bruce Adamson, Commissioner for Children and Young People Scotland

Steven LB Jensen, Danish Institute for Human Rights

Understanding NHRI effectiveness – Lessons from research on NHRIs, 1997 – 2017

Tom Pegram, University College London

Who guards the guardians? Global monitoring, performance assessment and human rights policy change

Cora Lacatus, University of Edinburgh

Institutional effectiveness between rules and implementation: the case of national human rights institutions in Europe

D5: Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and Sustaining Peace: The Missing Part of the Peace Puzzle

50 George Square, Room G.04

Chair, Katie Boyle, University of Stirling

Amanda Cahill-Ripley, Lancaster University Law School

Achieving the sustaining peace agenda and the Sustainable

Development Goals:  economic, social and cultural rights

– Bridging the gap between aspirations and implementation

Claire Duncanson, University of Edinburgh

Economic empowerment in the women, peace and security agenda

Karol Balfe, Christian Aid Ireland

The realisation of economic, social and cultural rights in peace building: Challenges for local civil society

10.30 – 11.00 Coffee

Coffee served both in Old College and 50 George Square, G.06

 

 

 

 

11.00 – 12.30 Panel Sessions E
E1: Challenging Traditional Human Rights Conceptions

50 George Square, Room G.04

Chair, Filippo Fontanelli, University of Edinburgh

Julia Kapelańska-Pręgowska, Nicolaus Copernicus University

UDHR as customary international law – conceptions, developments and relevance

Matyas Bodig, University of Aberdeen

Human rights protection and state capacity: the doctrinal manifestations of the statist character of international law

Thamil Venthan Ananthavinayagan, Griffith College

The UN human rights machinery – too big to fail? An examination of the flaws of the machinery and proposals from a Third World scholar’s perspective

 
E2: Transitional Justice and its Many Challenges

Old College, Playfair Library

Chair, Ingrid Westendorp, Maastricht University

Brianne McGonigle Leyh, Utrecht University

Truth commissions and the challenge of delivering on social justice

Róisín Burke, University of Canterbury

Conflict-Affected states: gender justice through Rule of Law programming in times of transition.

Laura Garcia Martin, University of Sevilla and University of Antwerp

Looking beyond the context: addressing economic, social and cultural rights violations in transitional justice processes

Elise Ketelaars, Ulster University

The patriarchy of international transitional justice and the perks and perils of transformative justice solutions: A critical examination of EU engagement with (transformative) gender justice in a neighborhood in transition

E3: Security

Old College, Raeburn Room

Chair, Tom Hadden, Queen’s University Belfast

Jeffrey Davis, University of Maryland

The tyranny of exceptionalism – Human rights, security, and the importance of international courts

Stephanie Berry, University of Sussex

(De)Securitizing international human rights law

Vivek Bhatt, University of Edinburgh

Human rights as counter-terrorism: a critical analysis of the UN’s approach to counter-radicalisation

Jan Pospisil, ASPR Vienna

Moving out of the security conundrum? The protection agenda in peace agreements

E4: Religion and Minorities

50 George Square, Room G.02

Chair, John Packer, University of Ottawa

Eva Maria Lassen, Danish Institute for Human Rights

Eroding one of the four freedoms? New challenges for freedom of religion or belief

Ross Holder, Trinity College Dublin

On the intersectionality of racial and religious discrimination: A case study on the applicability of ICERD with respect to China’s Uyghur Muslim Minority

Ulaş Karan, Istanbul Bilgi University

Human rights issues of ethnic and religious minorities in Turkey: A quest for a different path for a better protection beyond the “individual rights” and “collective rights” dichotomy

E5: Perspectives on Business and Human Rights

50 George Square, Room G.05

Chair, Annalisa Savaresi, University of Stirling

Migle Laukyte, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

Human rights and nonhuman corporations: fighting stereotypes and changing the paradigm

Radu Mares, Lund University

Securing human rights through risk-management methods: breakthrough or misalignment?

Marisa McVey, St Andrews University

Human rights and accounting: a viable relationship?

Fanny Pulver, Centre for Human Rights Studies of the University of Zurich

Access to remedy in the field of business and human rights: rights-holders and their representation through NGOs

E6: Human Rights and Conflict Transformation in Colombia: Challenges and Possibilities in a Country of Transition

Old College, Elder Room

Chair & Discussant, Manuel Salamanca Rangel, Javeriana University

Martha Lucía Márquez, Javeriana University

Humanitarian crisis in the border between Colombia and Venezuela

Mery Rodriguez, Universidad Ramon Lull-Blanquerna

Gender and peacebuilding in post accord Colombia: a matter of rhetoric

María  Lucía  Zapata, Javeriana University

Conflict transformation in post accord

12.30 – 14.00 Lunch, 50 George Square, G.06
AHRI General Assembly, 50 George Square, G.03

*Lunch for AHRI Institute Representatives will be served in the AGM meeting room Please arrive as quickly as possible in order to ensure sufficient time to complete the business of the AGM.

 

14.00 – 15.30 Panel Sessions F
F1: Developing Socio-Economic Rights

50 George Square, Room G.04

Chair, Dimitrios Kagiaros, University of Exeter

Wouter Vandenhole, University of Antwerp

Planetary boundaries and growth agnosticism: sustainable development as a human rights challenge

Antonia Baraggia & Benedetta Vimercati, University of Milan

Human dignity and socio-economic rights adjudication: a comparative overview

Azadeh Chalabi, University of Liverpool

Unpacking the concept of “obligation to take all appropriate measures”

Giulia Reimann, Centre for Human Rights Studies of the University of Zurich

Assessing the human rights impact of austerity and economic reforms: the role of international financial institutions

F2: Human Rights in Africa – From Rhetoric to Reality

Old College, Raeburn Room

Chair, Magnus Killander, University of Pretoria

Ashwanee Budoo, University of Pretoria

From the Universal Declaration on Human Rights to the Maputo Protocol: Whether the legal framework for the protection of women’s rights in Africa is at its optimum

Johannes Buabeng-Baidoo, University of Pretoria

Towards establishing an African fund for the realisation of the minimum core content of socio-economic rights

Edwin Abuya, University of Nairobi

Access to information in Africa

Kennedy Kariseb, University of Pretoria

Gender, Human Rights and the Regional [human rights] System: From rhetoric towards real transformation

F3: Criminality Discourse and Human Rights

Old College, Elder Room

Chair, Andy Aydin-Aitchison, University of Edinburgh

Michelle Coleman, Middlesex University

Individual Human rights versus collective victims’ rights in the criminal setting

Dolores Morondo Taramundi, Duesto University

‘…And should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood’: Current criminalisation of solidarity from a human rights perspective

Giuseppe Zago, Northumbria University

Sexual orientation and gender identity in confinement: protecting sexual and gender diversity in the prison space

Caleb Wheeler, University of Middlesex

Prosecuting individuals for the crimes of the group: whether the International Criminal Court should expand criminal liability to corporations and organisations

F4: Emerging Human Rights Conflicts & Challenges

Old College, Playfair Library

Chair, Elisenda Casanas Adam, University of Edinburgh

Alice Welland, Utrecht University

Tech-tonic shifts and the disruption of human rights: reimagining adaptability and accountability in the international human rights framework

Corina Heri, University of Amsterdam

The Emergence of Peasant Rights

Oluwafifehan Ogunde, University of Nottingham

Creating a Utopian Atmosphere for the Child in a multi-cultural society: convention on the rights of the child reconsidered

Nicholas McMurry, NUI Galway

Participation under human rights law

 
F5: What Can We Learn from Collective Peace Agreements? Findings from the PA-X Database

50 George Square, Room G.05

Chair, Stephanie Berry, University of Sussex

Sanja Badanjak, University of Edinburgh

Using PA-X in quantitative research: effectiveness of provisions on elections’

Laura Wise, University of Edinburgh

Packaging participation: non-dominant minorities in power-sharing peace agreements (PA-X)

Robert Forster, University of Edinburgh

Constituting transitions: tasks, options, drivers and dilemmas

Astrid Jamar, University of Edinburgh

Mapping the crusade of transitional justice experts: global dissemination of norms and their questionable claimed benefits (PA-X)

15.30 – 15.45 Break
15.45 – 17.45 Final Plenary Panel:

Moving Forward in Times of Transition

Old College, Playfair Library

Chair, Kasey McCall-Smith, AHRI Executive Chair

Professor Alan Miller, Special Envoy, Global Alliance of National Human Rights Institutes
Professor Elizabeth Salmón, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Amicus Curiae for the Special Jurisdiction for Peace (JEP) in Colombia
Professor Rhona Smith, UN Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in Cambodia
Closing Address: Nevertheless, She Persisted

Anna (Anne) Eleanor Roosevelt, recently retired Chief Executive Officer for Goodwill of Northern New England, USA